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Name:Eileen Clifford 

tree on campus with orange leaves

Position:Chemistry Adjunct Faculty
School/Location:Alameda
Phone:
E-mail:eclifford@peralta.edu or
chemcliff@gmail.com
Office/Classroom: Room 122 at 860 Atlantic

Introduction

I will be teaching Chem30A for spring semester 2016.

 

Choosing Your Chemistry Class at COA

Chem 1A is a first semester course in college chemistry. Topics include atomic theory, the mole concept, stoichiometry, introductory quantum theory, electronic structure, chemical bonding, molecular structure, thermochemistry, solution chemistry, intermolecular forces, equilibrium, and acid-base chemistry.

Chemistry class will take a time commitment of approximately 15 hours outside class time for homework.

Please make sure that you are taking the correct chemistry class since many programs like nursing will accept Chem30A, while other programs want Chem1A. Freshman chemistry classes across the nation have high failure rates due to unprepared students. Math skills are needed, and a recent chemistry class is recommended.

Chem1A requires the ability to use algebra and assumes that you have taken a previous chemistry class. If you have not taken chemistry classes recently or you did not attend a chemistry course in high school it is highly recommended to take Chem 50 or Chem30a before enrolling in Chem1A.  Chem 1A is the first required chemistry course for any science major (i.e. biology, chemistry engineering, etc.) and is a prerequisite for subsequent courses Chem 1B, Chem 12A, and Chem 12B.

Chem 50 covers the same topics as Chem 1A but at a slower pace and using less in depth material. This course does not require previous chemistry knowledge and will allow you to be fully prepared for and highly successful when you will take Chem 1A.  It is recommended for students who do not need chemistry for a program or major.  College of Alameda offers this class as a late start class, so that students who find they need a stronger background for Chem1A can pick up the class as well.

Chem30A covers what Chem1A covers, with several additional topics.  It is intended to cover general chemistry, and can be followed by Chem30B, which covers organic and biochemistry.  Chem30A is recommended for nursing programs, and several other programs require it as well.  It can also be used as a refresher for Chem1A.

My Courses: Syllabus and Materials

Syllabus and Course Materials for Eileen Clifford’s sections:

Chemistry 1A:

General Chemistry 1A Course Outline Spring 2012

Instructor Dr. Eileen Clifford

Room 150 at 860 Atlantic Avenue, Alameda

E-mail: eileen_chem1a@yahoo.com or eclifford@peralta.edu

Web page: http://alameda.peralta.edu/eileen_chem1a

Class Meetings Lecture: T/Th 2:00-4:50 PM; Room 150

Lab: Tuesday 6:00 – 8:50 PM; Room 110

Office Hours Tuesday 11-12:00 PM Adjunct Office

Online hour Monday 9-10 PM on moodle

Prerequisite MATH 203 or 211D, Intermediate Algebra

Previous chemistry course

Course Description Chemistry 1A is a five-unit course in general chemistry, which is the science of atomic theory, chemical nomenclature, chemical composition, stoichiometry, reactions in aqueous solution, thermochemistry, electron configurations, periodic properties, chemical bonding, gases, liquids, solids, and solutions.

Required Materials

1. Chemistry, 11th Edition, Theodore Brown, Eugene LeMay, Bruce, Bursten.

2. Chemistry 1A Laboratory Manual.

3. A scientific calculator that has at least log and exponential functions is required. Graphing capabilities are not necessary.

4. 8.5 by 11 permanently bound laboratory notebook with carbon copies.

5. OSHA approved laboratory safety goggles. Other types of goggles will not be permitted.

6. 3 by 5 inch note-cards.

Course Objectives

1. Solve quantitative chemistry problems demonstrating clear reasoning, integrating multiple ideas in the problem solving process, and checking results to make sure they are physically reasonable.

2. Describe and explain chemical concepts plus trends qualitatively. Use molecular scale models/descriptions to qualitatively explain laboratory scale physical and chemical properties.

3. Safely carry out chemistry experiments in the lab, learning common lab techniques, accurately recording observations and data in a laboratory notebook. Clearly report interpretations, analysis of results in laboratory reports.

Homework

(Extra-credit)

Homework will be assigned in class and collected approximately once a week. Since detailed solutions to the problems are available in the solution manual, and the odd numbered problems in the back of the text, it will be graded mainly on completeness. Students needing help with homework assignments should visit the instructor during regular office hours.

Homework assignments are designed to guide the student in his/her study of the material. Collaboration with your fellow students on homework is encouraged. It is up to the student to work as many problems as needed to clarify his/her understanding of a topic. The importance of working problems cannot be overemphasized!

Testing

Exams

The exams will be based on the material covered in the course and the homework, but will be different in content or style from what has been demonstrated. Students will be tested on their understanding of the general concepts of chemistry and will be required to apply these concepts to problems that chemists may need to solve.

Students will be permitted to bring one double-sided 3 by 5 inch note-card to the exams. The note-card may contain any information (eg. formulas, constants, definitions) deemed relevant by the student and will be collected with the test at the conclusion of each exam. The note-cards will be turned in with the test at the end of each exam period. Bring a calculator for exams.

The final exam covers all of the material covered in the class, and students are allowed to use a double-sided 8.5 x 11 inch sheet of paper for the necessary formulas and constants.

There will be no make-up exams. A missed exam will be excused for verified medical reasons (reported in advance), and the course grade will be based on the remaining course work.

In Class Quizzes

Quizzes will be given approximately every 2 weeks at the end of the lecture, and no additional time is given for late arrivals. Students who solve and understand the homework problems will be well prepared for the quizzes.

Laboratory experiments

Each lab assignment will be shown in the lab prior to performing the experiment. Except for Experiment 2: Metric Measurements and Density, and two VSEPR spread sheets, (available on line at http://alameda.peralta.edu/eileen_chem1a under the file named documents), all the assignments are described in the Chemistry 1A Laboratory Manual (available at the College of Alameda Bookstore).

Pre-lab Entries

A brief written summary of the lab procedure (pre-lab) along with the answers to the questions posed in the lab manual will be required to start each experiment.

The purpose of the pre-lab is to ensure that students understand the experiment and all related safety procedures. Students who do not turn in the pre-lab at the beginning of the lab period will not be allowed to attend lab until the pre-lab is completed and must complete the experiment in the remaining time. The lab period will not be extended. Guidelines for maintaining your laboratory notebook and the grading of your procedures will be given by your laboratory instructor.

During the lab period, in addition to carrying out the assigned experiments, it is strongly suggested that students use the time to complete the calculations as the instructor is available to provide help and clarification.

Post-lab Report

A lab report for each experiment (written separately and individually by each student) is due the following lab session and in same case will include answers to the post-lab questions posed in the lab.

The students are expected to do all lab experiments, and will be graded on all but one experiment. Any additional missed experiments result in a failed grade.

Code of Conduct

This course will be conducted according to the Peralta District Policies and Procedures set forth in the current College of Alameda Catalog. Both the lecture and lab are active learning environments. No disruptive behavior or inattentive activities will be tolerated either in class or lab, including CD players, iPods, MP3 players, cell phones, pagers or any other electronic devices that may disrupt the lecture or lab period. Students should make every effort not to be late for class; if you must arrive late or leave early, please take the nearest seat to the entrance of the classroom.

Student Responsibilities

Students are responsible for understanding the Academic Regulations, Policies and Standards found in the current College of Alameda catalog. In addition, students are responsible for understanding the procedures for add/drops, academic renewal, withdrawal, etc. found in the Academic Regulations, Policies and Standards current College of Alameda catalog.

Academic Integrity

The student’s own commitment to learning, as evidenced by their enrollment at College of Alameda, and the District Policies and Procedures requires each student to be honest in all their academic course work. Actions and consequences are delineated in the Student Code of Conduct, and all Code violations will be reported to the Vice President of Student Services. The policy on academic integrity can be found in the College of Alameda catalog.

Plagiarism or cheating in any context, tests or labs, will result in disciplinary action according to the College of Alameda policy.

Special Arrangements

Students, who need course adaptations or accommodations because of a disability or need special arrangements in case the building must be evacuated, should make an appointment or see me during office hours as soon as possible. College regulations require that students with disabilities requesting accommodations must register with the Program and Services for Students with Disabilities (DSPS) to establish a record of their disability. Information on the DSPS program may be obtained by calling (510) 748-2328 or visiting the DSPS office in Room D-117.

Grading

The final course grade will be based on the performance of each student on the following items:

1. One midterm exam (200 points)

2. One comprehensive final exam (200 points),

3. Fourteen lab assignments (50 points each lab; 15 points for the pre-lab and 35 points for the post-lab assignments).

4. Eleven in class quizzes (40 points each).

5. An additional credit up to 5% will be awarded for the homework (5 points if 50% of the homework is turned in or 10 points if the whole assignment is turned in).

6. One quiz and one lab report score may be dropped or missed. If any other quiz or lab is not turned in, the student will not pass. Please contact the instructor for any questions.

The weighting for each assignment towards the final course grade is as follows:

Midterm Exams and in class quizzes………….. 60%

Lab Assignments………………………………………. 20%

Final Exam………………………………………… 20%

Extra credit (Homework) ………………………… 5%

Total………………………………………………. 105%

Final letter grades will be assigned according to the percentage points that each student accumulates during the semester. The ranges for letter grades will be:

A =100-90% B = 89-80% C =79-70% D = 69-60%

Estimated Exam Dates

To be updated

Homework Problems Assigned

Chapter 1: Problems 1-51 odd, 58, 59, 60, 63, 69, 73

Chapter 2: Problems 1-77 odd numbered

Chapter 3: Problems 9-79 odd

Chapter 4: Problems 11-89 odd

Chapter 10: Problems 5-81 odd, 117

Chapter 5: Problems 11-85 odd

Chapter 6: Problems 9-97 odd

Chapter 7: Problems 7-81, 85, 87, 91

Chapter 8: Problems 1-92 odd

Chapter 9: Problems 11-73 odd, 75, 79, 80, 86, 88

Chapter 11: Problems 9-77 odd, 89, 91

Chapter 13: Problems 13-85 odd

Before class, read the chapter you will be covering. It will make a lot more sense in class.

At the end of each chapter, there is a chapter review. It lists the summary of each section and key terms, with key skills and equations. You should understand all of these.

If a subject (like empirical formula) was discussed in class, and especially if a problem was demonstrated, you are responsible for knowing it. If you miss class, ask someone for his or her notes.

The homework exercises are grouped by section of the chapter. Pick problems that you did not understand on the homework assignments and work them out. Get help sooner rather than later! You should not be confused by the homework.

Quizzes will cover the material, and are given before the exams. Make sure you understand and can do problems similar to those on the quizzes!

Use office hours as well as the chemistry help at the LRC. Sign up early for chemistry help at the LRC—by the end of the semester, it will be booked and unavailable. Send email to the instructor—she is happy to help by email or in person if possible.

Ask questions when you don’t know the answer—it shows that you want to learn! There are a lot of students too cool to ask for help who have failed chemistry.

Published January 24th, 2013 in

Welcome to Chem1B, second semester of general college level chemistry.  Class handouts from the first week of class are reproduced below.

Class updates and information will be posted to the moodle site for this class, found at online.peralta.edu

General-Chemistry-1B-Course-Outline-Syllabus-S13

Things-to-know-1A-all-12th-ed

Practice Final Chem1a

Link to Chem1B Lab Manual online

Published December 8th, 2015 in

Chem30A will use the book Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, 7th edition, by McMurry, Ballantine, Hoeger, and Peterson. ISBN: 0-321-75083-7.  OR you can use the 6th edition, ISBN 0-13-605450-1, which is often cheaper and very similar.

You will be using online homework through Sapling Learning, www.saplinglearning.com.

Name:Peter Olds 

Peter hiking in Yosemite

 Title:Chemistry Faculty
School/Location:Alameda
Phone:(510) 466-5379
E-mail:epolds@peralta.edu
Office/Classroom:

Introduction:

Peter Olds teaches Chemistry and Geology at College of Alameda.

My Courses: Syllabi & Materials

 

Chem 1A is a first semester course in college chemistry.  Topics include atomic theory, the mole concept, stoichiometry, introductory quantum theory, electronic structure, chemical bonding, molecular structure, thermochemistry, solution chemistry, intermolecular forces, equilibrium, and acid-base chemistry.  Chem 1A is the first required chemistry course for any science major and is a prerequisite for subsequent courses Chem 1B, Chem 12A, and Chem 12B.!!

 

Sapling Online Homework

New Lab Manual by Emily Eames

The listed bold chapters from Brown & Lemay will be covered for sure in Chem 1A. Other topics may be covered as time permits. Go to the bottom of this page for lecture notes.

Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 10 Gases

Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions

Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilbria

Chapter 12 Modern Materials

 

Here are some general chemistry review topics from Perdue.

 

Substances, Properties, and Measurements

Chemistry:  A Science of Substances

 

 

Matter:  What is matter?  What are substances?  How do we classify matter and substances?

 

Demo:  examples of substances (elements, compounds), and mixtures (homogeneous, heterogeneous).  What is the difference between a homogeneous mixture and a compound?

 

Chemistry is fundamentally about substances and how substances may change into other substances by way of chemical reactions or into other forms of the same substance by way of physical transformations.

 

A substance is either an element (simplest kind of substance) or a compound (chemical combination of two or more elements).  At the submicroscopic level the book says that an element, the simplest kind of substance, is made of only one kind of atom.  (This is not strictly true as we will see when we learn about isotopes.)  It is more accurate to say that an element consists only of atoms with the same nuclear charge.

 

In the early days of chemistry the existence of the nucleus, of nuclear charge, and or even of atoms was not known about!  So at that time an element was a substance that could not be broken down into or synthesized from simpler substances.

 

Example:  100.00 g of the substance called cinnabar (a red mineral) can be decomposed by heating to 86.22 g of mercury and 13.78 g of sulfur.  Mercury and sulfur cannot be broken down into simpler substances via chemical reactions so these substances were deemed elements by the early chemists.

 

Substances are classified and described by observing and measuring their properties.   This is what descriptive chemistry is about.  A particular substance can be identified by its chemical properties and by its intensive physical properties.

 

Chemical Property:  any chemical reaction involving the substance of interest

It is a chemical property of cinnabar that it can be chemically decomposed (broken down) into mercury and sulfur.  Another chemical property of cinnabar is that it can be synthesized from mercury and sulfur.

 

It is a chemical property of hydrogen that it can be reacted with oxygen to synthesize water.  Another chemical property of hydrogen is that it can be produced by reacting magnesium with hydrochloric acid.

 

In summary, the chemical properties of a substance are all possible chemical reactions involving the substance.

 

 

Physical Property:  any property which pertains only to the substance itself without reference to other substances.   (i.e. any property not having to do with chemical reactions.)

 

Melting point temperature, boiling point temperature, density, color, electrical conductivity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, etc. are all physical properties which can be used to identify a substance.  These also happen to be intensive physical properties which do not depend on the amount of substance present.  Temperature and pressure are also intensive properties.

 

Volume, mass, number of moles, energy, enthalpy, entropy, etc. are extensive physical properties which always depend on the amount of substance present.

 

 

 

The ratio of two extensive properties is always an intensive property which can be used for substance identification! Examples:

 

mass/volume = density

 

mass/(number of moles) = molar mass

 

volume/(number of moles) = molar volume

 

These kind of intensive properties (involving ratios of two extensive properties) also serve as conversion factors between the extensive properties involved.  Calculate the volume of a piece of cinnabar weighing 1.00 kg (density of cinnabar is 8.19 g/cc).

 

 

Measurements:  units, uncertainty, and significant figures

 

Since we are studying substances, and want to characterize or identify them according to intensive properties as described above, we need to make measurements on extensive properties!  Then we can take the ratio of two extensive properties to get an intensive property useful for identification.  (Some intensive properties we can measure directly like temperature or pressure.)  Of course any measurement always involves some kind of measuring device.  We might measure length with a ruler, volume with a graduated cylinder, mass with an analytical balance, etc.  To be useful, a value obtained from a measuring device needs to be communicated with units telling us what the measurement means and with some indication of the uncertainty to tell us how good the measurement is.

 

Units

(Mars Climate Orbiter crashed in 1999) Lockheed delivered thrust data in English units instead of metric units.  (Thrust data was sent in pounds instead of newtons.  1 pound = 4.45 newtons)

 

Metric Base Units vs English Base Units

              distance                mass                     time                   temperature         amount

SI           meter  “m”            kilogram “kg”       second “s”         Kelvin “K”              mole “mol”

 

English    foot                     pound                     second               Farenheit degree    mole

 

SI Derived Units              

             volume                         speed                                            density

SI          cubic meter “m3”         meters per second “m/s”             kilograms per cubic meter “kg/m3

 

Metric Units for Laboratory Scale work

SI base units and units derived from base units are too large quantities for use in the chemistry lab.  Instead will commonly use the following metric units:

 

distance                              mass         volume                                                                        

centimeter “cm”  gram “g”   cubic centimeter “cc”, “cm3”, or “mL”

 

density

gram per milliliter “g/cc”, “g/cm3”, “g/mL”               (mL = cc = cm3 is the same unit of volume)

 

Of course you should know how to do unit conversions between metric units, i.e. between laboratory scale units and SI base units.  Study the prefix table on p. 14 of the text.  Other useful unit conversion factors (including English-metric conversions) can be found under the back flap of your book.

 

 

 

 

 

Uncertainty in Measurements

Measured Quantity (p.22)                1.03 x 104 g                        1.030 x 104 g                      1.0300 x 104 g

 

Absolute Uncertainty                        0.01 x 104 g                        0.001 x 104 g                      0.0001 x 104 g

 

Relative Uncertainty                         0.01                                     0.001                                   0.0001

 

Number of Sig. Figs.                         3                                           4                                           5

 

 

1 – log(relative uncertainty)             3                                           4                                           5

 

 

When the uncertainty increases by a factor of ten, the number of sig. figs. decreases by one.  When the uncertainty decreases by a factor of ten, the number of sig. figs. increases by one.  Get it?

 

Absolute Uncertainty is the actual uncertainty of the measured quantity and depends on the device used.  The absolute uncertainty has the same units as the measured quantity!

 

Relative Uncertainty = Absolute Uncertainty / Measured Quantity and can also be called the “fractional uncertainty”. The Relative Uncertainty has no units.

 

The Number of Significant Figures is closely related to the log of the Relative Uncertainty (see above)!  For each unit increase of the Number of Sig. Figs. there is a 10 fold decrease in the Relative Uncertainty!  More Sig. Figs. always implies smaller uncertainties!

 

 

Significant Figure Propagation Rules are really about uncertainty propagation in calculations.

 

Multiplication or Division:  Answer has least number of sig. figs. of the input quantities.

 

Addition or Subtraction:  Answer has least number of decimal places of the input quantities.

 

Origin of Atomic Theory

Origin of the Atomic Theory

 

When early chemists evolved in sophistication to the point where they were making careful mass measurements before and after chemical reactions, the following patterns were observed in the experimental data:

 

Law of Conservation of Mass: total mass remains constant in the course of a chemical reaction. (Antoine Lavosier)

 

Law of Definite Proportions: in a given chemical compound, the mass ratios of elements making up the compound are always fixed, independent of how the compound was prepared. (Joseph Proust)

 

(Remember that a Law is a very general experimental result!)

 

These very general experimental results led John Dalton to propose his Atomic Theory as an explanation, namely that

 

1. Matter consists of indivisible atoms.

 

2. All atoms of a given element have the same mass (and other properties).

 

3. Different elements have different kinds of atoms, and in particular atoms with different masses.

 

4. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed, and maintain their identities in chemical reactions.

 

5. A compound forms from different elements by the combination of atoms (of those elements) in simple whole number ratios.

 

6. Chemical reactions involve combination, separation, or rearrangement of atoms (into new substances).

 

So, thanks to Dalton we to represent atoms and compounds with symbols! H, O, C, N, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, N2O etc.

 

Assuming his atomic theory to be correct, Dalton suggested that another law would also be true, namely the

 

Law of Multiple Proportions: When more than one compound is formed from the same two elements, then the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in the ratios of small whole numbers to each other.

 

For example it is observed that two compounds can be formed by combining the elements carbon and oxygen. For a fixed mass of carbon, the mass of oxygen in the first compound is twice the mass of oxygen in the second compound. How is this explained by Dalton’s Atomic Theory?

 

 

Elements and Compounds: Use of Symbols

 

Symbols for Elements & Compounds – Relative Atomic Mass Scale

Symbols for elements are typically the first or the first and second letters of the common name for the element.  Examples:  H (hydrogen), He (helium), B (boron), Be (beryllium).  Usually the English name but sometimes the Latin or German name will be used.  (Paul, King, & Farinholt 1967.)

 

Non-obvious chemical symbols:

English                   Latin                       Symbol

Antimony              Stibium                   Sb

Copper                   Cuprum                  Cu

Gold                        Aurum                    Au

Iron                         Ferrum                    Fe

Lead                       Plumbum                Pb

Mercury                 Hydragyrum          Hg

Silver                      Argentum              Ag

Tin                          Stannum                                Sn

 

English                   German                   Symbol

Potassium              Kalium                    K

Sodium                   Natrium                  Na

Tungsten               Wolfram W

 

Chemical formulas:  What do they mean?  Use molecular formula for molecules, empirical formula for salts.

 

Chemical formulas in molecules

Molecular formulae:  H­2O, CO2, CO, NH3, NO, NO2    Symbols refer to atoms in a molecule.

Show models here.

 

Chemical formulas in salts

Empirical formulae:  NaCl,  MgCl2, NaBr, KCl, NaNO3    Symbols refer to atoms in a formula unit.

Show models here.

 

The whole idea behind chemical formulae is to symbolically represent Dalton’s atomic theory, that

  1. 1.        Matter consists of indivisible atoms.
  2. 2.        These atoms are unique in properties (like mass) peculiar to a given element.
  3. 3.        Atoms combine in various combinations of simple whole number ratios to form compounds.

 

Dalton’s mistake

So, for example, early chemists including Dalton noticed that when combining hydrogen and oxygen, 1g of hydrogen always combines with 8 g of oxygen.  Thinking that the simplest compounds formed from two elements consisted of on atom from each element, he erroneously took the formula for water to be HO.

 

Avogadro proposed that equal volumes of a gas contained equal numbers of molecules and noticed that when hydrogen combined with oxygen to form water, two volumes of hydrogen always combined with one volume of oxygen.   Hence Avogadro correctly inferred the formula for water to be H2O.  Now we know that both hydrogen and oxygen are diatomic:  i.e. in their elemental gaseous state they consist of the molecules H2 and O2 respectively.  Symbolically, hydrogen and oxygen recombine chemically to form water according to the reaction equation:

 

2H2 + O2 à 2H2O

 

The subscripted numbers refer to numbers of atoms in a molecule (or in a formula unit in the case of ionic compounds).  The numbers in front of the molecules give the ratios between molecules combined and/or formed in the reaction and are called stoichiometric coefficients.   Stoichiometric coefficients arise from the balancing of chemical equations.  We balance reaction equations because in chemical reactions atoms are neither created nor destroyed according to Dalton’s Atomic Theory (which explains the Law of Mass Conservation).

 

 

 Law of Combining Volumes and Avogadro’s hypothesis

Law of Combining Volumes and Avogadro’s hypothesis

 

Dalton’s Atomic Theory, introduced in 1808, was readily accepted by chemists since it neatly explained the experimental results summarized in the Law of Conservation of Mass, the Law of Definite Proportions, and the Law of Multiple Proportions.

 

The problem was now to determine the relative masses of the elements and the formulae of simple molecules and compounds. If you already know the formula of a binary compound, then it is easy to determine the relative masses of the elements that make up the compound. Conversely if you know the relative masses, then it is easy to determine the formula (to an integer multiple) of the compound. The problem the early chemists had was to determine both the relative masses and the formulae simultaneously! To this end, Dalton (wrongly) proposed his “rule of greatest simplicity”, namely that the simplest compound consisting of elements A & B consisted of one atom of A plus one atom of B. So Dalton thought the formula for water was HO and therefore that an oxygen atom’s mass was 8 times greater than a hydrogen atom’s mass.

 

At about this time, a French chemist named Joseph Gay-Lussac was carrying out experiments reacting simple gases together to form new gases. By carefully measuring the volumes of both the reactant and product gases he discovered that the volumes of the two reacting gases (at fixed P and T) are always in the ratio of simple whole numbers (integers). Additionally it was always the case that the ratio of the volume of the product gas to any reactant gas was also a ratio of simple whole numbers. This general experimental result was called the Law of Combining Volumes.

 

Examples:

 

2 volumes of hydrogen combines with 1 volume of oxygen to give 2 volumes of water vapor.

 

3 volumes of hydrogen combine with 1 volume of nitrogen to give 2 volumes of ammonia.

 

Avogadro, thinking about this data, proposed that equal volumes of different gases (at fixed T and P) contain equal numbers of particles. This statement is now known as Avogadro’s Hypothesis (or Avogadro’s Law). The question was then whether the particles were the same as Dalton’s atoms. Avogadro’s opinion was that they were not, i.e. some elements could exist as diatomic molecules. In this way he could explain Gay-Lussac’s experimental results. In particular, for the above two reactions Avogadro proposed the equations:

 

Avogadro where Dalton would have written

 

2 H2 + O2 à 2H2O H + O à HO

 

3 H2 + N2 à 2NH3 H + N à HN

 

 

It is easy to see that, given Avogadro’s hypothesis, the equations on the left agree with Gay-Lussac’s results where the equations on the right do not.

 

 

Armed with Avogadro’s hypothesis, chemists were now able to correctly determine formulas for simple compounds and the relative atomic masses for many elements.

 

 

Discoveries of the Electron and The Nucleus

History of discovery of the electron and the nucleus:J.J. Thompson is credited with discovering the electron in 1897: http://www.aip.org/history/electron/

Dalton thought the atom was an indivisible particle. He had no idea about the existence of electrons, protons, neutrons, or atomic nuclei. In the very late 1800s, Thompson used a cathode ray tube fitted with variably charged plates and a magnet to infer the existence of the electron and then to measure its charge/mass ratio. He inferred the existence of particles with a particular charge and mass because cathode rays behaved analogously to large charged bodies moving in electric and magnetic fields: that is these rays acted like streams of charged objects whose trajectory obeyed Newton’s laws of motion when subjected to forces given by Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism.

For those of you with some physics background, Thompson’s calculations are reproduced here:http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/AtomicStructure/Disc-of-Electron-Results.html

Then in 1909, Robert Millikan measured the charge on an electron in his famous oil drop experiment:http://online.cctt.org/physicslab/content/phyapb/lessonnotes/dualnature/Millikan.asp

More Homework: Calculate the mass of the electron from Thompson’s e/m ratio of 1.759 x 10**11 Coulomb/Kg and Millikan’s charge on the electron of 1.602 x 10**-19 Coulombs. (This is just a simple conversion factor – dimensional analysis problem.)

J.J. Thompson’s “plum pudding” model of the atom – Before protons were known, Thompson thought that in the atom, electrons moved around in evenly distributed “positively charged pudding”:

http://www.physics.rutgers.edu/meis/Rutherford.htm

Rutherford’s experiment bombarding gold foil with alpha particles proved the “plum pudding” model to be wrong!

http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/AtomicStructure/Rutherford-Model.html

Rutherford concluded that:

1. An atom’s positive charge and mass must be concentrated in a very small positively charged nucleus as only a very small number of alpha particles either deflected or rebounded off the foil.

2. Most of the atom must be empty space. This space must contain the negatively charged electrons.

Rutherford Atom, today’s view:http://www.chemistry.ohio-state.edu/~woodward/ch121/ch2_atoms.htm

Some student questions answered……The following important questions were emailed several semesters ago:Question: What is the difference between atomic mass and mass number?Atomic mass is the actual mass of an atom (in amu or g/mol). Mass number, A, is the sum of number of protons + number of neutrons for an atom. Atomic mass is a measured quantity (has uncertainty) while the mass number is an exact or counted quantity (has no uncertainty).The mass number turns out to be a decent estimate of the measured atomic mass of a given isotope to within 2 or 3 significant figures. Why? The proton and neutron both have masses nearly but not precisely the same as 1 amu.Question: What is the difference between atomic number and mass number?Atomic number, Z, is the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus. All atoms of a given element have the same atomic number but not necessarily the same mass number. Question you should be able to answer: How do isotopes of the same element differ?

 

 

Relative Atomic Masses, the Atomic Mass Unit, and Atomic Molar Mass

 

Atomic mass scale:

 

The relative atomic mass scale in amu’s was worked out (in the 1800s before chemists new how to weigh or count atoms directly) from experimentally observed mass ratios and volume ratios in the formation of simple binary compounds from pairs of elements as we showed in class. (Avogadro’s Law was used in this this endeavor to compare masses of equal volumes of gases.) Thus, setting a hydrogen atom equal to 1 amu (atomic mass unit), the relative weights of other elements were determined relative to hydrogen even though hydrogen’s absolute mass was not known.

 

Nowadays we can measure masses of individual isotopes of elements very precisely with mass spectrometers. Now the amu is based on the carbon 12 isotope rather than hydrogen: 1 amu is defined as exactly 1/12 the mass of a single carbon 12 atom. Avogadro’s number, NA, or a mole, is the number of amus in a gram. Alternatively, Avogadro’s number, NA, or a mole, is the number of carbon 12 atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon 12.

 

For any element there are Avogadro’s number, i.e. one mole, of atoms in the atomic mass of that element expressed in grams. Example: one oxygen atom has a mass of 16.00 amu while a mole of oxygen atoms has a mass of 16.00 grams. Can you prove this? So the atomic molar mass is a conversion factor between grams and moles. Thinking macroscopically, we say oxygen has an atomic molar mass of 16.00 g/mol (grams per mole). The same goes for any other element. This is why the atomic mass is also known as a molar mass.

 

Early chemists knew Avogadro’s number was important even though they were unable to measure it at the time. Avogadro’s number (also known as a mole) is 6.022 x 1022. You don’t need to know the number to convert from grams to moles or vice versa. You do need to know the number to calculate the number of atoms (or molecules) in a given mass of the pure substance in question.

 

 

Molar mass of a compound: We can calculate the mass of a molecule ( in amu) by adding up the masses of all the atoms in that molecule. Thinking macroscopically, the molar mass of a molecule is the sum of the molar masses of the constituent atoms. So we can easily determine the mass to mole conversion factor for any compound.

 

Example: the molecular mass of an H2O molecule is 2 x 1.008 amu + 1 x 16.00 amu = 18.01 amu

 

So the molar mass of H2O is 2 x 1.008 g/mol + 1 x 16.00 g/mol = 18.01 g/mol

 

For ionic compounds for which the word “molecule” does not apply because we are dealing with a lattice, simply substitute the term “formula unit” for the word “molecule” in the above discussion. For a molecular substance the molar mass is also known as the molecular mass. For an ionic compound, the molar mass is also known as the formula mass.

 

Molecular Formula: Gives the numbers of atoms in the molecule

 

Empirical Formula or Formula Unit: Gives the simplest whole number ratios between atoms in any compound.

 

Determining the Empirical Formula from mass data: know how to do this.

General Chemistry 1A

Description:

Chem 1A is a one semester college general chemistry course. Atomic structure, the periodic table, molecular structure and bonding, chemical reactions, the mole concept, stoichiometry, gas laws, thermochemistry, solutions, colligative properties, equilibrium, and phase diagrams will be addressed. 12 to 14 chapters will be covered in 16 weeks (or almost 1 chapter per week). Problem solving and critical thinking skills are emphasized in addition to learning the language of chemistry.

The listed bold chapters from Brown & Lemay will be covered for sure in Chem 1A. Other topics may be covered as time permits.

Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 10 Gases

Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions

Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria

Chapter 12 Modern Materials

Times, places, materials, who is teaching:

Lecture – MW 9:00 -11:50 am in D-119 on main campus (section 40990).

Lab -F 9:00-11:50 am (section 40991) or 1:00-3:50 pm (section 41321) in room 150 at 860 Atlantic.

 

Instructor: Peter Olds

E-mail: peter.chem1a.coa@gmail.com

Office Hours: TBA or by appointment or leave message at Gmail ID: peter.chem1a.coa

 

Required Course Materials:

Text: Chemistry: The Central Science 12th Ed by Brown, LeMay and Bursten

Computer with internet access

Scientific calculator (graphing calculators and cell phones not allowed during quizzes and exams)

Chem 1A lab manual

Laboratory notebook with blank graph paper

Laboratory safety glasses

 

Safety Note: No sandals, shorts, food, or drink are allowed in the lab! Protective shoes and clothing are required.

Homework:

Online homework will be turned in via your account with Sapling Learning.  Sapling homework will be done without collaboration.  Sapling homework will be considered part of “class participation” (see below) which makes up 10% of your grade.

Problems from old quizzes and exams are also highly recommended and tend to be more difficult.  Though these problems will not be turned in, you will find them highly valuable for developing your chemistry skills.  For these problems it is strongly suggested you not look at the answers until you are absolutely stuck, in which case it is also a good idea to bring up the problem in class. Your goal is to thoroughly understand the material so collaboration with your fellow students on problems from old quizzes and exams is encouraged.

Quizzes and Exams:

At least every two weeks there will be an in-class 100 point quiz. Additionally there will be a 400 point midterm exam and an 400 point final exam. There will be no make-ups for tests and exams. Missing two quizzes, the mid-term, or the final exam results in an F for the course. Quizzes and exams will make up 70% of your grade.

Laboratory:

At least one experiment will be carried out each laboratory period. A brief written summary of procedure (prelab) will be required to start each experiment. In addition to carrying out the assigned experiments, calculations are to be completed before leaving lab. A lab report for each experiment (written separately and by yourself) is due the following lab session and must include answers to the questions posed in the lab manual. Your presence in lab is required to obtain credit for an experiment. Missing, flunking, or failing to write up three experiments disqualifies you from this course. As with homework, collaboration in the lab is encouraged with regards to collecting data. However, you must do your own calculations and interpretation of results. Expect to make mistakes. A large amount of learning occurs when you get feedback on your own work. Copied work is obvious and will result in loss of credit and corrective action. Plagiarism or cheating in any context, tests, exams or labs, will result in disciplinary action (1st offence: zero on test or lab; 2nd offence automatic F for the course). Labs will make up 20% of your grade.

Class participation:

Class time is your best opportunity to ask questions about problems you are stuck on, confusing text material, or chemistry related topics that tweak your curiosity. To help you along in this direction, class participation including attendance, problem solving (evidence of homework) and discussion will make up 10% of your grade. You can be dropped from the course if you miss a certain quota of lecture and/or lab hours. (Consult with a dean if you have questions about this policy.)

 

Learning Strategy:

Chemistry addresses the fundamental nature of substances (kinds of matter) and changes that substances undergo. Science in general and chemistry in particular can be very satisfying to people who are curious about nature and/or technology. While demanding, chemistry rewards those who put in the time and effort to attain real understanding. To maximize your chances of success the following steps are highly recommended: 1) form small study groups that meet on a regular basis and get tutoring if you need it 2) before reading a chapter try a few problems and look at the “Summary and Key Terms” at the end of the chapter 3) attempt problems and read the material well before lecture so that you arrive with questions. Learning is more efficient if you come to class stuck on problems and/or reading material. Use the book to learn the easy material and use the instructors to help you master the difficult concepts.

If you seriously put in more time out of class than in class on chemistry you will get a good grade in this course.

Published January 7th, 2015 in

Students:

1.  Go to http://saplinglearning.com/ and click “US Higher Ed” at the top right.

2.  a. If you already have a Sapling Learning account, log in then skip to step 3.

b. If you have Facebook account, you can use it to quickly create a Sapling Learning account. Click the blue button with the Facebook symbol on it (just to the left of the username field). The form will auto-fill with information from your Facebook account (you may need to log into Facebook in the popup window first). Choose a password and timezone, accept the site policy agreement, and click “Create my new account”. You can then skip to step 3.

c. Otherwise, click “Create an Account”. Supply the requested information and click “Create my new account”. Check your email (and spam filter) for a message from Sapling Learning and click on the link provided in that email.

3.  Find your course in the list (you may need to expand the subject and term categories) and click the link.

4.  Select a payment option and follow the remaining instructions.

5.  Work on the Sapling Learning training materials. The activities, videos, and information pages will familiarize you with the Sapling Learning user environment and serve as tutorials for efficiently balancing equations, drawing molecules, etc. within the Sapling Learning answer modules. These training materials are already accessible in your Sapling Learning course.

Once you have registered and enrolled, you can log in at any time to complete or review your homework assignments. During sign up – and throughout the term – if you have any technical problems or grading issues, send an email to support@saplinglearning.com explaining the issue. The Sapling support team is almost always more able (and faster) to resolve issues than your instructor.

Assignments for Chem 1A

Chem 1A Assignments (past, present, and future)

Chem 1A assignments will be posted here.

Bookmark this page and check it regularly along with the tentative calendar.

Chem 1A Logistical Preparation, Questionnaire, and Email. This information will assist me in helping you succeed in Chem 1A at College of Alameda.

Access the website: http://mail.yahoo.com/ and create your own Yahoo email account for this course. This will allow you 1) to take advantage of online office hours with Yahoo Messenger and 2) to view rich text formatting in any Chem 1A emails. It is also a convenient way of keeping Chem 1A materials separate from spam and other emails.

 

Complete the following Questionnaire and send a simple email with the information (no attachments please) to:

peter_chem1a@yahoo.com with the subject line “Chem 1A Spring 2008”. Upon receipt, your email address will be added to the Chem 1A mailing list where you will typically receive Chem 1A news including links to homework, lab assignments, practice tests, etc. Be sure to include your essay in the email. Also, print this form and turn in hard copy (with a sample of your writing) in class.

 

Questionnaire for Chemistry 1A Section: AM PM (circle one) Course Code:

 

Name: Date:

 

Phone number: E-mail:

 

What country or state are you from? ____________ What is your native language? ________

 

List all college-level science and math classes passed with a C or better:

 

Course Where taken? When taken?

Substances, Measurements and Uncertainty

Access and begin the online stoichiometry review at Carnegie Mellon (1st item under “Links” at the Chem 1A home page).

Read Chapters 1 & 2 as soon as possible. Preview Chapter 3

Chapter 1 exercises:

Ch 1 (pp28-33): 1-51 odd, 57, 58 59, 60, 63, 69, 73.

——————————————————————————–

Dalton’s Atomic Theory, The Electron, The Nucleus, The Rutherford Atom, Ions, Compounds, Chemical Nomenclature.

Continue with online Stoichiometry Review by Carnegie Mellon.

Reread Chapters 1 & 2 as necessary. Read Chapter 3.

Chapter 2 exercises:

Ch 2 (pp65-73): 1-55 odd, 59,61,67,68,69,70,75,76,77,78,79,82,85,86,87,89,90,91,92, 95,97,98;

HW Handouts:

1) take home periodic table exercise;

2) nomenclature worksheet

(both stored on this website under “documents”)

——————————————————————————–

Mole Concept, Molar Mass, Mass to Mole Conversions, Percent Composition, Calculating Yields from Balanced Equations

Finish online stoichiometry review by Carnegie Mellon.

Ch3 (pp 110-119): 3-6, 9-12, 14-20 even, 22, determine mass percent of elements in 22-c, 27, 29, 34, 38, 43-51 odd, 59, 63, 64, 67-69, 71, 92, 103.

Old Chem 1A Test 2 (stored under “Documents” at this website).

——————————————————————————–

Reaction types: Precipitation, Acid-Base Neutralization, Redox; Concentration: molarity; Solubility Rules

Read Chapter 4 doing the sample exercises.

Problems:  Ch4 (pp 157-165): 1-10, 20-54 even, 59-65, 67, 69-73.

——————————————————————————–

Gas Laws, Ideal Gas Law, Molar Volume of a Gas, Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

Read Chapter 10 up through p. 420 doing the sample problems.

Problems: Ch10 (pp 433-436): 1-5, 9-11, 13-17, 21, 23-28, 29,

31-39 odd, 43-45, 48, 49, 50, 57, 59, 63

——————————————————————————–

Light, Matter, Waves, Particles, and the modern view of electronic structure called Quantum Mechanics

Reading:

Chapter 5 Section 5.1 (pp 168-170) on the nature of

energy up through the paragraphs on units of energy.

Chapters 6 and eventually 7 in their entirety doing

the sample exercises.

HW Problems:

Ch5 (pp. 204-205): 1, 9, 10, 11, 12

Ch6 (pp. 251-259): 1, 2, 9-18, 19-29 odd, 31-33,

35-38.

Ch6: 75-78, 47-59 odd, 60, 60-64, 66,67,71,72,73,74,

82,83,84,86,89,90,92,93,97

Ch7 (pp. 291-299): 3,4, 7-18, 21, 25-28, 31, 35-40,

53-55.

More Ch7: 42,44,51,52,56,57,67,82,91,94,96

optional (for fun): 104,105,106

——————————————————————————–

Chemical Bonding, Electronegativity and Polarity, VSEPR Theory for Molecular Geometry

Read Chapters 8 and 9 (except for MO theory) doing the example problems.

In Chapter 8 take “bond enthalpies” to mean “bond energies” (for now “bond energy” means the minimum energy necessary to pull atoms apart and break a bond). Also don’t worry about the Born-Haber cycle yet. And in Chapter 9 ignore section 9.7 (pp 373-385) on molecular orbitals (at least for now).

Problems:

Ch8 (pp 336-343): 1,3,4,5,7-12,13-19 odd,22,25

29-37,39-43,45-48,53,55,56,86 more later….

Ch9 (pp 388-397): 2,4,5,11-17,20,31,32,34,37,39

more later….

Additional Homework:

1. Print out and complete VSEPR worksheets (available in “Documents”) for Lewis Structure and VSEPR Geometry lab.

2. Download and install CHIME molecular viewing software as per email instructions.

More Problems:

Ch8: 57-64 (octet rule exceptions), 65-71 odd, 87 (bond energies), 73,74,78,80,83,84,85,88,99,100,111

Ch9: 39-57 odd (valence bond theory, hybrid orbitals, multiple bonds), 75,76,78,79,81,82,86,87,101

Ch10 (pp437-441) 69-85 odd, 102,103

——————————————————————————–

Thermochemistry

Read and re-read Chapter 5 on thermochemistry doing the example problems.

Make sure you understand the difference between “heat”, a form of energy transfer, and “temperature”, a measurable property (and a state function!) related to average kinetic energy of molecules in a “system”. Precise use of words is a huge part of thermochemistry! Use the “Summary and Key Terms” at the end of the chaper (p203).

HW Problems: Ch5 (pp 205-214): 17-20, 23-26, 30-33, 35, 36, 37, 39, 41, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 59-63 odd, 65, 66, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 83, 84, 86, 89-93, 108, 111, 115

——————————————————————————–

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Read the last part of Chapter 10 on Kinetic Theory of Gases and the Van der Waals Equation for real gases.

Problems:  Ch 10 (pp432-433): Visualizing Concepts 6,7,8
Ch 10 (pp437-440: 69,70,71,73-79 odd, 81-85,102,103,118
Intermolecular Forces, vapor pressure, boiling point, phase diagrams, phase change enthalpies

Read Chapter 11 on intermolecular forces (also called Van der Waals interactions or Van der Waals bonds).

Ch 11 (pp476-485): 1-29 odd,33,34,35,37,38,39,43-49 odd

42-50 even, 51-56, 71-78, 79-85 odd, 88, 100,

101, 102, 105, 107

——————————————————————————–

Solutions, solubility, enthalpies of solution, molality, mole fraction, colligative properties

Read Chapter 13 on intermolecular forces in solutions, solubility, enthalpy of solution, molality, mole fraction, colligative properties (especially Raoult’s Law).

HW Problems:
Chapter 13 (pp565-572): 1,2,4-8,10-18,21-24,27-32,34,36,40,42,52,55-57,58,63-66,68,71,72,74,83,84,85,87,91,
92,96,100,103,104,105

——————————————————————————–

Chemical Equilibrium, Reversibility, Law of Mass Action

Read Chapter 15 on Chemical Equilibrium doing the example problems.

Problems:  Chapter 15 (pp660-667):
2-5, 11-33 odd, 35-37, 43,46,50,51,52,55,58

Welcome to Chem 1B at COA!snowflake

Chem 1B is a second semester course in college general chemistry addressing chemical equilibrium, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, coordination chemistry, and a brief introduction to organic chemistry. Chem 1A is a prerequisite for Chem 1B. Chem 1B is in turn a prerequisite for sophomore organic courses Chem 12A and Chem 12B (currently offered at Laney and Merritt Colleges). These four courses, Chem 1A, 1B, 12A, and 12B, taken sequentially, are necessary background for any academic or career path in the sciences.

Chem 1B classroom and lab locations are now at 860 Atlantic Ave.

Course Description:

Chem 1B is a 2nd semester college general chemistry course with an emphasis on introduction to physical chemistry. Chemical equilibrium, aqueous (including acid-base) equilibrium, thermodynamics, coordination chemistry, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, nuclear chemistry, and some organic chemistry will be addressed. Problem solving and critical thinking skills are emphasized.

The listed bold chapters from Brown & Lemay will be covered in the following order:

  • Chapter 15  Chemical Equilibrium
  • Chapter 16  Acid-Base Equilibria
  • Chapter 17  Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
  • Chapter 5    Thermochemistry (review from scratch)
  • Chapter 19  Thermodynamics
  • Chapter 20  Electrochemistry
  • Chapter 14  Chemical Kinetics
  • Chapter 21  Nuclear Chemistry
  • Chapter 23  Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
  • Chapter 24  Brief introduction to organic chemistry

Additional topics may be covered as time permits:

  • Chapter 9 Molecular Orbital Theory (review quantum first)
  • Chapter 18 Chemistry of the Environment
  • Chapter 22 Chemistry of the Nonmetals

Required Course Materials:

  • Text: Chemistry: The Central Science 12th Ed by Brown, LeMay, Bursten & Murphy
  • Lab Manual: Laney or COA Chem 1B Lab Manual
  • Laboratory Notebook with empty pages of graph paper
  • Computer with broadband internet access.
  • Sapling online homework account: https://www.saplinglearning.com/ibiscms/login/

Recommended Course Materials:

Critical Information:

Course numbers: 21054 lecture, 21055 lab

The final exam will be held at 6:00 pm on Tuesday of finals week.

Homework:

Online homework will be turned in via your account with Sapling Learning.  Sapling homework will be done without collaboration.  Sapling homework will be included in “course participation” (see below) which makes up 10% of your grade.

Problems from old quizzes and exams are also highly recommended and tend to be more difficult.  Though these problems will not be turned in, you will find them highly valuable for developing your chemistry skills.  For these problems it is strongly suggested you not look at the answers until you are absolutely stuck, in which case it is also a good idea to bring up the problem in class. Your goal is to thoroughly understand the material so collaboration with your fellow students on problems from old quizzes and exams is encouraged.

Quizzes and Exams:

Every two weeks there will be an in-class 100 point quiz. Additionally there will be a 400 point midterm exam and an 400 point final exam. There will be no make-ups for tests and exams. Missing two quizzes, the mid-term, or the final exam results in an F for the course. Quizzes and exams will make up 70% of your grade.

Laboratory:

At least one experiment will be carried out each laboratory period. A brief written summary of procedure (prelab) will be required to start each experiment. In addition to carrying out the assigned experiments, calculations are to be completed before leaving lab. A lab report for each experiment (written separately and by yourself) is due the following lab session and must include answers to the questions posed in the lab manual. Your presence in lab is required to obtain credit for an experiment. Missing, flunking, or failing to write up three experiments disqualifies you from this course. As with homework, collaboration in the lab is encouraged with regards to collecting data. However, you must do your own calculations and interpretation of results. Expect to make mistakes. A large amount of learning occurs when you get feedback on your own work. Copied work is obvious and will result in loss of credit and corrective action. Plagiarism or cheating in any context, tests, exams or labs, will result in disciplinary action (1st offence: zero on test or lab; 2nd offence automatic F for the course). Labs will make up 20% of your grade.

Attendance: Class time is your best opportunity to ask questions about problems you are stuck on, confusing text material, or chemistry related topics that tweak your curiosity. To help you along in this direction, class participation including attendance, problem solving (evidence of homework) and discussion will make up 10% of your grade. You can be dropped from the course if you miss a certain quota of lecture and/or lab hours. (Consult with a dean if you have questions about this policy.)

Learning Strategy:

Chem 1B is a natural extension of Chem 1A with more emphasis on physical chemistry and on deepening your understanding of concepts introduced in Chem 1A. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics is a subtle idea and forms the theoretical basis for understanding equilibrium constants and spontaneous processes introduced early in the course. The following steps are highly recommended: 1) form small study groups that meet on a regular basis and get tutoring if you need it 2) before reading a chapter try a few problems and look at the “Summary and Key Terms” at the end of the chapter 3) attempt problems and read the material before lecture so that you arrive with questions. Learning is far more efficient if you come to class stuck on problems and/or reading material. So use the book to learn the easy material and then use the instructors to help you master the difficult concepts not made clear in the book.

If you seriously put in more time out of class than in class on chemistry you will get a good grade in this course.

Published January 7th, 2015 in

Students:

1.  Go to http://saplinglearning.com/ and click “US Higher Ed” at the top right.

2.  a. If you already have a Sapling Learning account, log in then skip to step 3.

b. If you have Facebook account, you can use it to quickly create a Sapling Learning account. Click the blue button with the Facebook symbol on it (just to the left of the username field). The form will auto-fill with information from your Facebook account (you may need to log into Facebook in the popup window first). Choose a password and timezone, accept the site policy agreement, and click “Create my new account”. You can then skip to step 3.

c. Otherwise, click “Create an Account”. Supply the requested information and click “Create my new account”. Check your email (and spam filter) for a message from Sapling Learning and click on the link provided in that email.

3.  Find your course in the list (you may need to expand the subject and term categories) and click the link.

4.  Select a payment option and follow the remaining instructions.

5.  Work on the Sapling Learning training materials. The activities, videos, and information pages will familiarize you with the Sapling Learning user environment and serve as tutorials for efficiently balancing equations, drawing molecules, etc. within the Sapling Learning answer modules. These training materials are already accessible in your Sapling Learning course.

Once you have registered and enrolled, you can log in at any time to complete or review your homework assignments. During sign up – and throughout the term – if you have any technical problems or grading issues, send an email to support@saplinglearning.com explaining the issue. The Sapling support team is almost always more able (and faster) to resolve issues than your instructor.

FAll 2005 Chem 1A final key

Old Chem 1A tests and exams

Old Chem 1B tests and exams

Summer 2006

Spring 2006

Thermodynamics documents and clips

  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics – the most important thing you will ever know

Assignments

Chem 1B Assignments (past, present, and future)

Chem 1B assignments will be posted here.
Bookmark this page and check it regularly along with the tentative calendar.

Logistical Preparation, Questionnaire, and Email

 

Chem 1B Logistical Preparation, Questionnaire, and Email. 

This information will assist me in helping you succeed in Chem 1B at College of Alameda.

 

If you don’t have a gmail account already, access the website:http://mail.google.com/and create your own gmail account for this course.  This will allow you 1) to take advantage of online office hours with Google Hangouts and 2) to view rich text formatting in any Chem 1B emails.  It is also a convenient way of keeping Chem 1B materials separate from spam and other emails.

 

Complete the following Questionnaire and send a simple email with the information (no attachments please) to:

peter.chem1b@gmail.comwith the subject line “Chem 1B Fall 2013”.  Upon receipt, your email address will be added to the Chem 1B mailing list where you will typically receive Chem 1B news including links to homework, lab assignments, practice tests, etc.  Be sure to include your essay in the email.Also, print this form and turn in hard copy (with a sample of your writing) in class. 

 

 Questionnaire for Chemistry 1B

 

Name:Date:

 

Phone number:Email:

 

 

What is your native language?  

 

List all college-level science and math classes (including Chem 1A)  passed with a C or better:

 

Course                                               Where taken?                                                           When taken?

 

 

Please introduce yourself and comment on why you are taking Chem 1B.

 

 

Chem 1A Review Problems p1

1)       For each of the following covalent compounds and polyatomic ions, draw a valid Lewis structure, indicatinggeometry around central atoms, hybridization,  bond angles, and whether the species is polar or not..

Lewis structure                geometry on               central atom

formula         (include bond angles)         central atoms?           hybridizations?                    polar?

CO32-

HCN

C6H6

PF3

PF5

2)       Consider molecules from the previous problem.  Draw an orbital overlap diagram (showing sigma and pi bonds) for an above molecule of your choice which contains at least one multiple bond.

Draw resonance structures for two molecules above in which resonance structures are required.

3)       Ethanol, CH3CH2OH (or C2H6O) is being developed as an alternative fuel since it can be produced from renewable resources like corn or sugar cane.

a)       Write a balanced equation for the complete combustion of ethanol.

b)       Suppose you have a 70.0 L (typical fuel tank size) of ethanol (density 0.7893 g/cc) and unlimited oxygen.  Calculate the number of moles (theoretical yield) of carbon dioxide produced.

c)       What volume will be occupied by the CO2 at STP? Calculate the percent composition by mass of the elements in ethanol.

4)       A solution is prepared by dissolving 2.50 g NaCl in 550.0 g H2O.  The density of the resulting solution is 0.997 g/mL.

a)       What is the molality of NaCl in the solution?

b)       What is the mole fractionof NaCl in the solution?

c)       What is the mass %of NaCl in the solution? 

d)       What is the molarity of NaCl in the solution?

5)       A chemist wanted to prepare hydrazine, N2H4, (a type of rocket fuel) by the reaction:

2NH3 + OCl –> N2H4 + Cl + H2O which essentially goes to completion.   To do this she mixed 5.0 mol NH3 with 3.0 mol OCl.

  1. What is the limiting reactant? 
  2. How many moles of hydrazine will be obtained? 
  3. Assign oxidation numbers.  Is this a redox reaction?
  4. If so, what is being oxidized?  And what is being reduced?

6)       Phase Diagrams:

a)       Draw a phase diagram for water (up to 2 atm), labeling the phase fields, triple point, normal melting point, and normal boiling point.

b)       What is the vapor pressure at 100oC of a 2.0 molal aqueous solution of glucose, C6H12O6 ?  Hint:  Determine the mole fraction of glucose and use Raoult’s Law.  (You don’t need to know the molar mass of glucose to solve this problem.)

c)       Now use dotted lines to modify the above phase diagram for water by superimposing the new phase boundaries for the 2.0 molal solution of glucose.

 

7)       Calculate the reaction enthalpy of formation of anhydrous aluminum chloride,

2 Al(s) +  3 Cl2(g) à 2 AlCl3(s)  from the following data:

 

2 Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) à 2 AlCl3(aq) + 3 H2(g)              ΔHorx = -1049 kJ

 

HCl(g) à HCl(aq)                                                        ΔHorx = -74.8 kJ

 

H2(g) + Cl2(g) à 2 HCl(g)                                           ΔHorx = -185 kJ

 

AlCl3(s) à AlCl3(aq)                                                   ΔHorx = -323 kJ

 

Would you expect the equilibrium constant to rise or fall with increasing temperature for this reaction?

 

8)       Draw valid Lewis structures for each of the following compounds:  CH3CH2CH2OH (propanol), CH3CH2CH2CH3 (butane), and CH3CH2OCH3 (methyl-ethyl-ether) indicating for each molecule which Van der Waals forces are important.

 

a)       Rank the molecules in order of increasing vapor pressure at fixed temperature.

 

b)       Rank the molecules in order of increasing normal boiling point.

 

c)       Which molecule has the highest vapor pressure?  Which has the lowest vapor pressure?

 

d)       Which molecule has the highest boiling point?  Which has the lowest boiling point?

 

9)       What is a “state” in chemistry?  What is a “state property” or “state function”?

 

10)       Give as many examples as you can of Chem 1A systems which are in a “state”.

 

11)       State the 1st Law of Thermodynamics in at least 3 ways.

 

12)       Write balanced “molecular”, complete ionic, and net ionic chemical equations for the following reactions:

a)       The neutralization of HCl by calcium carbonate to give calcium chloride, water, and carbon dioxide (TUMS reaction).

 

b)       The precipitation of lead iodide when a KI solution is added to a solution of Pb(NO3)2.

HW Problems – Chapter 13 (pp563-571):

1, 2, 5-10, 13-20, 23-26, 29-34, 36, 38, 42, 44, 54,

57-59, 60, 65-68, 70, 75, 76, 78, 86-89, 91, 94,

101, 105, 108, 109, 110

Fall 2005 Test 6 problems 1 and 2.

Chapter 15 (pp658-665):

2-4, 11-33 odd, 35-37, 43, 46, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 59, 65, 66, 78,

and all versions of Test 1 under “Old Chem 1B Tests and Exams” in “Other Documents”.

Chapter 16 (pp 712-719):

Problems:  1-7, 11,13,14,15,17,19,21,23-26,27-31,33-39 odd,41-44,47
51-59 odd,63,71-75,79.

Chapter 16 (pp 716-719):

Problems:  Ka-Kb connection and salts:  80,81,85,87,89; acid-base character and structure: 91-98; Lewis acids & bases: 99-101,103; general problems:  108, 113 (for fun), 119.

Chapter 17 (pp 761-763):

Problems:  9,10,11,15,16,17-21.23.25,27,29,31.32.33,35, 37(Chem1A review), 39,41,43

Chapter 17 (pp 763-767):

Problems:  45-49, 51-65 odd (Ksp and Kf problems), 87, 90

More acid-base equilibria and titration review:  76-79, 96, 98, 93

Thermochemistry Review:

Chapter 5 (pp 205-214): 17-20,23-26,30-33, 35,36,37,39,
41,47,49,51,53,55,59-63 odd

Titration Practice:

Chapter 17 (pp762-763):  31-44 as needed

Chapter 19 (pp 836-843):

Problems: 1-6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13-18, 19-26, 27-39 odd, 41-44, 47, 49-65 odd, 69, 71-77 odd, 82, 98, 102

Chapter 20 (pp890-899):

Problems: 1-4, 5a-b, 7-14, 15-23 odd, 24, 25-31, 33-37 odd, 39-45 odd, 47, 49, 55-61 odd, 63-69 odd, 75, 77, 79, 82, 83-85, 87, 95, 105, 115.

Chapter 14 (pp 617-627):

Problems: 1-6, 11-15, 17, 21-25, 27, 31, 33-37, 41, 43, 45-49, 51-55 odd, 59-63 odd, 67, 69-72, 79, 81, 98

Chapter 21 (pp 931-935):

Problems:  1-6, 7-15, 17-24, 25-29, 31-33, 39, 40-42, 43, 45, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 65, 67, 76, 81

Chapter 24 (pp1055-1061) Problems: 1-8, 9-13, 15, 17-15 odd, 27-31 odd, 35-39, 41, 66, 78, 81

The listed bold chapters from Brown & Lemay will be covered for sure in Chem 1B. Other topics may be covered as time permits.

  • Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium
  • Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria
  • Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
  • Chapter 19 Thermodynamics
  • Chapter 20 Electrochemistry
  • Chapter 14 Chemical Kinetics
  • Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry
  • Chapter 9 (9.6, 9.7, 9.8) Molecular Orbital Theory (review quantum first)
  • Chapter 18 Chemistry of the Environment
  • Chapter 22 Chemistry of the Nonmetals
  • Chapter 24 Chemistry of Coordination Compounds
  • Chapter 25 Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry

Here are some general chemistry review topics (including Chem 1B material) from Perdue.

Check back regularly for lecture notes with hyperlinks below:

Dynamic equilibrium is a condition of a specified system which obtains when macroscopic properties of that system, like P, T, V, E, H, S, ni (moles of each component i), and Mi (molarity of each component i) are not changing with time, even while microscopic processes are indeed still occurring.

Examples of dynamic equilibrium:

  • The vapor pressure experiment: equilibrium between the liquid and gaseous phases of a pure substance.
  • Solubility of gases (and solids) in liquids: equilibrium between the pure gas (or pure solid) and a liquid solvent saturated with the gaseous (or solid) substance. The concentration of the gas (or solid) when equilibrium has been reached (at a specified temperature) is called the solubility of the substance in that liquid at that temperature.
  • Chemical equilibrium: a state in a specified chemical system at some specified temperature in which concentrations (and amounts) of products and reactants are not changing with time.

In all these cases dynamic equilibrium obtains if we wait long enough so that measurable properties are no longer changing with time. Dynamic equilibrium occurs when forward rates are equal to reverse rates. Rates of processes, and in particular rates of chemical reactions, fall under the subject of kinetics, while equilibrium states and the prediction of these equilibrium states fall under the subject of thermodynamics.

When a specified system exhibits dynamic equilibrium we say the system is in an “equilibrium state” or just a “state”. This is a much broader meaning of the word “state” than is initially introduced in typical Chem 1A texts. Here we are not talking about solid, liquid, and gaseous “states” even though a single phase system can be in an equilibrium state if the measurable macroscopic properties are not changing with time.

Chemical Equilibrium

When a specified chemical system (held at some fixed temperature) after a sufficient amount of time attains a condition of dynamic equilibrium, i.e. it has evolved to the status of a state: then in particular the amounts and concentrations of reactants and products are no longer changing with time even though forward and reverse reactions are occurring at the microscopic level at equal rates.

It is interesting to ask if there is a more subtle relationship involving equilibrium reactant and product concentrations, a relationship which is independent of any non-equilibrium initial concentrations of any experiment carried out at the specified temperature. In other words, can we start with an arbitrary mixture of reactants and products at a specified temperature, let the system evolve until equilibrium is reached, and then discover some property which is independent of the arbitrary initial concentrations.

Such a relationship was discovered by Norwegians Cato Guldberg and Peter Waage around 1865:

For an given reaction system, say aA + bB <-  ->cC + dD at a specified temperature,

where the lower case letters are stoichiometric coefficients and the capital letters are chemical formulas,

Guldberg and Waage found that when dynamic equilibrium is reached, the ratio [C]c[D]d/[A]a[B]b = K , a constant. K is called the equilibrium constant and K is constant in the sense that this quantity is independent of starting concentrations of reactants and products.

Here [X] means “molarity of species X”.

For historical reasons, Guldberg and Waage called this data pattern the “Law of Mass Action”. We will call it the Law of Equilibrium Concentrations.

Here is an English translation Guldberg and Waage’s original paper.

Equilibrium Expressions – manipulating and using equilibrium constants

Equilibrium constants have been measured for many reactions. Since in the equilibrium expression given by the “Law of Mass Action” the equilibrium constant K is a ratio of product concentrations over reactant concentrations, large K implies products will be largely present while small K implies reactants will be largely present when equilibrium has been reached. Even more usefully, if initial concentrations (and K) are known , then equilibrium concentrations can be calculated with elementary algebra.

From Perdue here are the basics and the rules for writing equilibrium expressions.  And here is a review on how to calculate equilibrium constants from experimental data.

Hyperlinks on these pages are borrowed from various academic institutions and are included to help you consolidate your chemical knowledge.

In Chem 1B we mostly use the Bronsted-Lowry definitions of acids and bases:  a Bronsted acid is a  source of H+ while a Bronsted base is an acceptor of H+.  We are very interested in calculating aqueous concentrations of H+ known as “H-plus” ions or “protons”. We are also interested in calculating aqueous concentrations of OHknown as “OH-minus” ions or “hydroxide” ions.  Knowing concentrations of these ions has important ramifications in fields as wide-ranging as biotechnology, geology, oceanography, atmospheric science, and speculation about whether life could have existed on Mars.

A nice feature of acid-base equilibria is that reactions are usually simple homogeneous systems with stoichiometric coefficients of unity in dilute aqueous solution.  So the resulting equilibrium expressions given by the Law of Mass Action are very simple:

generic acid dissociation:  HA <–> H+ + A                  for which Kc = Ka = [H+][A]/[HA],

generic base hydrolysis:   A  + H2O <–> HA + OH      for which Kc = Kb = [HA][OH]/[A],

and

the auto-dissociation of water: H2O <–>  H+ + OH       for which Kc = Kw = [H+][OH].

Note that whatever the substances are, HA and A are known as a conjugate acid-base pair.  Also note that the third reaction (the auto-dissociation of water) is a sum of the first two.  This implies that for any conjugate acid-base pair it must be that Ka x Kb = Kw.

Acid-base equilibria are principally about calculating equilibrium concentrations of acids, their conjugate bases, H+ and OH ions by applying the techniques we already know about from Chapter 15 to the above reactions.

Geology 10 is an introduction to the Earth’s composition and materials, the Earth’s birth and evolution, structure of the Earth’s surface and interior, how the Earth works in light of plate tectonic theory and inferred mantle convection, and why the Earth is habitable to life as we know it.  In the Bay Area we live on a major transform plate boundary, a situation lending itself to many interesting local field trip opportunities!  We will explore the three basic types of plate boundaries (transform, divergent plus convergent) and the volcanism, earthquakes and rocks associated with these plate boundary types.

Geology 10 is also a good preparatory course for students before taking the more rigorous Geology 1.

 

Geology 10 Spring 2016

  • Lecture and Lab – F 9:00-11:50 860 Atlantic Science Annex room 160.      
  • Instructor:  Peter Olds – peter.geo10.coa@gmail.com, Office Hours: TBA or leave message at Google ID: peter.geo10.coa
  • Peralta class code 24459

Required Course Materials:

  • Online homework account at:  www.wwnorton.com/smartwork
  • Instructions to create an online HW account:   SW_Student_Registration_OldsSpr16
  • TextEssentials of Geology: 4th ed. by Stephen Marshak
  • Lab Manual: Geotours Workbook
  • Lab/Field Notebook with empty pages of paper
  • Computer with broadband internet access & scientific calculator
  • Install Google Earth on your computer!

Description:

Geology 10 is an introduction to the Earth’s composition and materials, the Earth’s birth and evolution, structure of the Earth’s surface and interior, how the Earth works in light of plate tectonic theory and inferred mantle convection, and why the Earth is habitable to life as we know it.  In the Bay Area we live on a major transform plate boundary, a situation lending itself to many interesting local field trip opportunities!  We will explore the three basic types of plate boundary (transform, divergent plus convergent) and the volcanism, earthquakes and rocks associated with these plate boundary types.

 

Homework:

Online homework will be turned in via your Smartwork account.  Online homework will be done by yourself without collaboration.  Online homework will make up 20 % of your grade.

Quizzes and Exams:

Every week there will be a short attendance quiz covering the most recent material.  Additionally there will be a 400 point midterm exam and an 400 point final exam.   There may be random quizzes. There will be no make-ups for exams and quizzes.  Missing two quizzes, the mid-term exam, or the final exam results in an F for the course.  Tests and quizzes will make up 65% of your grade.

Field Trips

Some of our Friday sessions will be used for field trips to nearby localities of geological interest.  After all we live on a major plate boundary!  Field trips and your field trip reports will make up 15% of your grade.

Attendance Policy: 

10% of your grade will be based on class participation which includes attendance and evidence you are actively involved in Geology 10.

Learning Strategy: 

Geology addresses the fundamental nature of Earth history, what the Earth is made of and how the Earth works.  Since we cover a lot of material in a limitedkamount of time, the following steps are highly recommended:  1) form small study groups that meet on a regular basis; 2) get tutoring if you need it; 3) try a few problems, look at the “Chapter Summary”, “Key Terms” and “Review Questions” before reading a chapter; 4) attempt problems and read the material before lecture so that you arrive with questions.  Learning is much more efficient if you come to class stuck on problems and/or reading material.  Use the book to learn the easy material and use me to help you master the more difficult concepts.

It is highly recommended you spend 3-6 hours per week outside of class on geology depending on your needsIf you seriously put in more time out of class than in class on geology you will most likely get a good grade in this course.

  • Prelude: And Just what is Geology?
  • Chapter 1: The Earth in Context
  • Chapter 2: The Way the Earth Works:  Plate Tectonics
  • Chapter 3: Patterns in Nature:  Minerals
  • Interlude A:  Rock Groups
  • Chapter 4: Up from the Inferno:  Magma and Igneous Rocks
  • Chapter 5: The Wrath of Vulcan:  Volcanic Eruptions
  • Interlude B:  A Surface Veneer:  Sediments and Soils
  • Chapter 6: Pages of the Earth’s Past:  Sedimentary Rocks
  • Chapter 7: Metamorphism:  A Process of Change
  • Interlude C: The Rock Cycle
  • Chapter 8: A Violent Pulse:  Earthquakes
  • Interlude D:  The Earth’s Interior Revisited: Insights from Geophysics
  • Chapter 9: Crags, Cracks, and Crumples:  Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building
  • Interlude E:  Memories of Past Life:  Fossils and Evolution
  • Chapter 10: Deep Time:  How Old is Old?
  • Chapter 11: A Biography of Earth
  • Chapter 12: Riches in Rock:  Energy and Mineral Resources

Email: dsawicka@peralta.edu

Chemistry 50

Chemistry 50 is a one-semester introductory course, in which we discuss the historical origins of this branch of the sciences, its relationship to biology and physics, and to our everyday life. Selected experiments provide exposure to laboratory procedures and results. You are expected to be familiar with fractions, exponents, decimal notation, and basic algebra.

Students who are successful in Chemistry 50 may become interested in a career such as pharmacy or nursing. With the consent of the instructor, such students can transfer into Chemistry 30B, the second semester of the Chemistry 30A-B series, which is specifically designed for students in the health sciences (see below).

Also, many of our students have found that Chemistry 50 is a useful preparation for the more comprehensive and rigorous Chemistry 1A-B series, which is required for careers in medicine, physics, molecular biology, veterinary science, etc.

Chemistry 30B

Designed for students intending to enter health-related fields such as nursing, physical therapy, and nutrition, Chemistry 30B is an introductory-level course combining organic chemistry and biochemistry. Successful completion of Chemistry 30A or an equivalent course such as Chemistry 50 is a prerequisite for Chemistry 30B.

Organic chemistry, the chemistry of carbon compounds, is the basis for biochemistry, the chemistry of life. We discuss the names, physical properties, structures, and reaction mechanisms of many organic compounds and biologically important molecules. Selected laboratory experiments provide exposure to basic laboratory procedures.

Syllabus – Chemistry 50

Chemistry 50 Syllabus, Spring 2012

Instructors, lectures and laboratory, office hours, email

Dorota Sawicka & Clyde Willson, lectures M-W-F 10-11, lab M 12-3

Office hours: M 11-12 in the chemistry office (860 Atlantic Avenue) and by appointment

Email: dsawicka@peralta.edu, cdwillson@peralta.edu

Given in the science annex building at 860 Atlantic Avenue. There is a shuttle bus service between the science building, the main COA campus, and the Lake Merritt BART station. For further information call (510) 747-7936 or go to this website: www.EstuaryXINGshuttle.org

Required texts and other course materials:

(1) Introductory Chemistry by Russo & Silver (third edition, 2006)

(2) Laboratory Manual for Chem 50 and Chem 30A (available in the COA bookstore)

(3) Closed-toe shoes for laboratory safety (required by California law)

(4) A scientific calculator, capable of exponents and logarithms

Course topics: following the chapter titles in the textbook:

1: What is chemistry? 2: The numerical side of chemistry 3: The evolution of atomic theory 4: The modern model of the atom 5: Chemical bonding and nomenclature 6. The shape of molecules 7. Chemical Reactions 8: Stoichiometry and the mole 9: The transfer of electrons fromone atom to another in a chemical reaction 10: Intermolecular forces and the phases of matter 11: What if there were no intermolecular forces? The ideal gas 12: Solutions 13: When reactants turn into products 14: Chemical equilibrium 15: Electrolytes, Acids and Bases 16: Nuclear Chemistry

Attendance and grading policies:

(1) Students who decide to discontinue are responsible for dropping the class. If you do not drop, you will receive a grade. (2) Students are allowed up to 5 absences, one of which may be a midterm examination. If you accumulate more than 5 absences you may be dropped. If you are absent from the first class meeting you may be dropped. Signing in and then leaving soon afterwards will not be recorded as an attendance. If you expect to be absent, please speak to the instructor in advance.

(3) All examinations are open-book and open-notes. A scientific calculator will be required.

Examination schedule:

First midterm: Monday, February 13

Second midterm: Friday, March 23

Third midterm: Monday, April 23

Final examination: Monday, May 21

Student Learning Outcomes – COLLEGE OF ALAMEDA – CHEMISTRY 50

Spring 2012

Introduction to General Chemistry

(for students in all programs which require one semester of chemistry lecture and laboratory)

Students who successfully complete Chemistry 50 will learn to:

1. Perform chemical laboratory techniques accurately and safely.

•Follow safety procedures.

•Use chemical glassware and other scientific equipment properly and carefully.

•Apply concepts learned in lecture to laboratory experiments and associated calculations.

•Use chemical and physical measurements to identify unknown substances.

2. Utilize mathematics, chemical terminology, and chemical models.

•Understand, utilize, and correctly pronounce appropriate scientific terms.

•Become familiar with specialized terminology used in chemistry and associated disciplines.

•Apply mathematics to solve quantitative chemical problems.

•Use atomic models to construct complex chemical molecules.

3. Understand and explain chemical structures and reactions at the molecular level.

•Extract physical data from standard chemical references.

•Interpret various forms of chemical formulae and structural diagrams.

•Solve reaction equations by using concepts discussed in lecture and in the laboratory.

•Recognize both advantages and dangers in the application of chemical technology.

If you have any questions about this class, please contact the instructors: dsawicka@peralta.edu, cdwillson@peralta.edu

Name:Brian Young 

campustree-300x225

Title:Chemistry Faculty
School/Location:Alameda
Phone:
E-mail: byoung3@usfca.edu
Office/Classroom:

Introduction:

Teaches Chemistry classes at College of Alameda.

My Courses: Syllabus and Materials

  • Sapling Learning Online Homework
  • Chemistry 50

Chem 50 is a four-unit beginning chemistry course. It is a prepatory course for Chem 1A students that have not had high school chemistry recently. If you are interested in allied health (nursing, etc.), you may want to take Chem 30A. However, it may be possible to substitute Chem 50 for Chem 30A.

Why is the sky blue? Why is lead heavy? What is temperature? Why is water a liquid and gold a solid. Why can’t you melt wood? Chemistry addresses these questions by teaching us how atoms and molecules give rise to the properties of the world around us. In this class you will learn to explore these questions as a beginning chemist.

General Information

Published February 5th, 2016 in

Introductory Chemistry 50

Description:

Chem 50 is a one semester beginning chemistry course. Atomic structure, the periodic table, molecular structure and bonding, chemical reactions, the mole concept, stoichiometry, solution stoichiometry, liquids, solids, and gases, and acids and bases will be addressed. About 10 chapters will be covered in 16 weeks. Problem solving and critical thinking skills are emphasized in addition to learning the language of chemistry.

The listed bold chapters from Zumdahl and DeCoste will be covered for sure in Chem 50. Other topics may be covered as time permits.

Chapter 2 Measurements and Calculations

Chapter 3 Matter

Chapter 4 Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

Chapter 11 Modern Atomic Theory

Chapter 5 Nomenclature

Chapter 6 Chemical Reactions: An Introduction

Chapter 7 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 8 Chemical Composition

Chapter 9 Chemical Quantities

Chapter 13 Gases

Chapter 14 Liquids and Solids

Chapter 16 Acids and Bases

 

Times, places, materials, who is teaching:

Lecture – MWF 1:00 – 2:05 p.m. (section 21374) in Room 110 at 860 Atlantic .

Lab -MW 2:15 – 5:50 p.m. (sections 21058 and 21059) in Room 150 at 860 Atlantic.

 

Instructor: Ron Shinomoto

E-mail: rsshinomoto@gmail.com

Office Hours: M 10:30 – 11:30 a.m. or by appointment in Room 122 at 860 Atlantic

 

Required Course Materials:

Text: Introductory Chemistry, A Foundation, Zumdahl and DeCoste, 7th Ed.

Computer with internet access

Scientific calculator (graphing calculators and cell phones not allowed during quizzes and exams)

Chem 30A/50  lab manual

Laboratory notebook with blank graph paper

Laboratory safety glasses

 

Safety Note: No sandals, shorts, food, or drink are allowed in the lab! Protective shoes and clothing are required.

Policy and Advice

Published February 5th, 2016 in

Homework:

Online homework will be turned in via your account with Sapling Learning.  Sapling homework will be done without collaboration.  Sapling homework will be considered part of “class participation” (see below) which makes up 18% of your grade.

Problems from old quizzes and exams are also highly recommended and tend to be more difficult.  Though these problems will not be turned in, you will find them highly valuable for developing your chemistry skills.  For these problems it is strongly suggested you not look at the answers until you are absolutely stuck, in which case it is also a good idea to bring up the problem in class. Your goal is to thoroughly understand the material so collaboration with your fellow students on problems from old quizzes and exams is encouraged.

Quizzes and Exams:

At least every two weeks there will be an in-class 100 point quiz. Additionally there will be a 400 point midterm exam and an 400 point final exam. There will be no make-ups for tests and exams. Missing two quizzes, the mid-term, or the final exam results in an F for the course. Quizzes and exams will make up 63% of your grade.

Laboratory:

At least one experiment will be carried out each laboratory period. A brief written summary of procedure (prelab) will be required to start each experiment. In addition to carrying out the assigned experiments, calculations are to be completed before leaving lab. A lab report for each experiment (written separately and by yourself) is due the following lab session and must include answers to the questions posed in the lab manual. Your presence in lab is required to obtain credit for an experiment. Missing, flunking, or failing to write up three experiments disqualifies you from this course. As with homework, collaboration in the lab is encouraged with regards to collecting data. However, you must do your own calculations and interpretation of results. Expect to make mistakes. A large amount of learning occurs when you get feedback on your own work. Copied work is obvious and will result in loss of credit and corrective action. Plagiarism or cheating in any context, tests, exams or labs, will result in disciplinary action (1st offence: zero on test or lab; 2nd offence automatic F for the course). Labs will make up 15% of your grade.

Class participation:

Class time is your best opportunity to ask questions about problems you are stuck on, confusing text material, or chemistry related topics that tweak your curiosity. To help you along in this direction, class participation including attendance, problem solving (evidence of homework) and discussion will make up 18% of your grade. You can be dropped from the course if you miss a certain quota of lecture and/or lab hours. (Consult with a dean if you have questions about this policy.)

 

Learning Strategy:

Chemistry addresses the fundamental nature of substances (kinds of matter) and changes that substances undergo. Science in general and chemistry in particular can be very satisfying to people who are curious about nature and/or technology. While demanding, chemistry rewards those who put in the time and effort to attain real understanding. To maximize your chances of success the following steps are highly recommended: 1) form small study groups that meet on a regular basis and get tutoring if you need it 2) before reading a chapter try a few problems and look at the “Summary and Key Terms” at the end of the chapter 3) attempt problems and read the material well before lecture so that you arrive with questions. Learning is more efficient if you come to class stuck on problems and/or reading material. Use the book to learn the easy material and use the instructors to help you master the difficult concepts.

If you seriously put in more time out of class than in class on chemistry you will get a good grade in this course.

Published February 11th, 2016 in

Students:1.  Go to http://saplinglearning.com/ and click “US Higher Ed” at the top right.2.  a. If you already have a Sapling Learning account, log in then skip to step 3.

b. If you have Facebook account, you can use it to quickly create a Sapling Learning account. Click the blue button with the Facebook symbol on it (just to the left of the username field). The form will auto-fill with information from your Facebook account (you may need to log into Facebook in the popup window first). Choose a password and timezone, accept the site policy agreement, and click “Create my new account”. You can then skip to step 3.

c. Otherwise, click “Create an Account”. Supply the requested information and click “Create my new account”. Check your email (and spam filter) for a message from Sapling Learning and click on the link provided in that email.

3.  Find your course in the list (you may need to expand the subject and term categories) and click the link.

4.  Select a payment option and follow the remaining instructions.

5.  Work on the Sapling Learning training materials. The activities, videos, and information pages will familiarize you with the Sapling Learning user environment and serve as tutorials for efficiently balancing equations, drawing molecules, etc. within the Sapling Learning answer modules. These training materials are already accessible in your Sapling Learning course.

Once you have registered and enrolled, you can log in at any time to complete or review your homework assignments. During sign up – and throughout the term – if you have any technical problems or grading issues, send an email to support@saplinglearning.com explaining the issue. The Sapling support team is almost always more able (and faster) to resolve issues than your instructor.

Published March 3rd, 2016 in

Introductory Chemistry 50

The listed bold chapters from Zumdahl and DeCoste will be covered for sure in Chem 50. Other topics may be covered as time permits. Go to the bottom of this page for lecture notes.

Chapter 2 Measurements and Calculations

Chapter 3 Matter

Chapter 4 Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

Chapter 11 Modern Atomic Theory

Chapter 5 Nomenclature

Chapter 6 Chemical Reactions: An Introduction

Chapter 7 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 8 Chemical Composition

Chapter 9 Chemical Quantities

Chapter 13 Gases

Chapter 14 Liquids and Solids

Chapter 16 Acids and Bases

 

Here are some general chemistry review topics from Perdue.

 

Lecture notes with hyperlinks below: